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Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember and learn.
As part of the larger field of cognitive science, this branch of psychology is related to other disciplines including neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics. The core focus of cognitive psychology is on how people acquire, process and store information. There are numerous practical applications for cognitive research, such as improving memory, increasing decision-making accuracy and structuring educational curricula to enhance learning.
If you have ever wondered about what motivates human thought and behaviour, understanding these theories can provide useful insight into individuals and society. Humanist Theories Humanistic psychology theories began to grow in popularity during the s. While earlier theories often focused on abnormal behavior and psychological problems, humanist theories instead emphasized the basic goodness of human beings. Some of the major humanist theorists include Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow.
Personality Theories Almost every day we describe and assess the personalities of the people around us. Whether we realize it or not, these daily musings on how and why people behave as they do are similar to w hat personality psychologists do.
Personality psychology looks at the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique. Some of the best known theories in psychology are devoted to the subject of personality. Almost everyday we describe and assess the personalities of the people around us. Whether w e realize it or not, these daily musings on how and why people behave as they do are similar to w hat personality psychologists do. Social Psychology Theories Social psychology is focused on helping us understand and explain social behavior.
Be sure everyone can see and hear. Maintain eye contact. Emphasise key points, and if possible prepare before hand ask key questions as you go along and allow trainees to ask questions. Observe all safety rules, precautions and procedures; and emphasise them. Use proper instructions, aids such as chalkboard, charts, handouts e.
Provide for trainees participation where possible, during and after demonstration. Demonstrate the correct way only. First impressions are important, therefore, make them correct ones. Always summarise the steps and emphasise key points again. Return all items used during demonstration to their storage places. Make arrangements to have the trainees practice the skill as soon as possible in a practical class session. Observe and analyse trainee s performance and correct mistakes.
Offer reinforcement where necessary. Coach weak or slow trainees. Allow sufficient time interval before demonstrating another operation. During a longer session, the plenary group can break into sub-groups to discuss one or two specific questions or issues.
If appropriate, after the discussion one member of each group can report its findings back to the plenary. Buzz groups can be in pairs, trios, or more depending on the activity.
People turn to their neighbours for a quick buzz, or form larger groups of three or more. This allows almost every one to express an opinion. While they are buzzing, participants are able to exchange ideas and draw on their wide collective experience. It may provide a good opportunity for trainees to reflect on the content of a lecture.
A good buzz session will generate many ideas, comments and opinion, the most important of which will be reported back. It is particularly a good way of getting bright ideas. It differs from the buzz groups discussion in that the focus is on generating as many ideas as possible without judging them. In this technique, all ideas are given equal credence. Participants are encouraged to let ideas flow freely, building on and improving from previous ideas. No idea, however crazy, should be rejected.
These ideas are listed exactly as they are expressed on a board or flipchart, or written on bits of paper. The combination of swiftly generated ideas usually leads to a very animated and energising session. Even the more reserved participants should feel bold enough to contribute. The purpose of listing responses is to collect existing experiences and thoughts. It is useful to collect answers to questions when you expect much repetition in the responses.
After a brainstorm session, the ideas can be discussed further and evaluated, for example listing the best options in a systematic way. Ideas can be grouped and analysed so that they belong to the group rather then individuals. Unlike a buzz session, a brainstorm session can work well with a large group and usually takes less time.
It is best to limit the time for plenary brainstorms, as you might lose the attention of some participants. Role plays are useful for exploring and improving interviewing techniques and examining the complexities and potential conflicts of group meetings.
They help participants to consolidate different lessons in one setting and are good energisers.
However, role plays can be time-consuming and their success depends on the willingness of participants to take active part. Some trainees may feel a role play is too exposing, threatening or embarrassing. This reluctance may be overcome at the outset by careful explanation of the objectives and the outcome.
Some role plays can generate strong emotions amongst the participants. It is therefore essential that a role play is followed by a thorough debriefing. This provides the opportunity for the trainer and the participants to raise and assess new issues. To orient students. Saves time. To introduce a 2. Permits communication. A formal or semi- subject. Poses problems in formal discourse is 3. To give directions on 3. Requires less skill teaching.
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Utilises student 5. Restricts size of 3. To emphasise main knowledge and groups. To supplement 4. Results in more lectures, reading, or permanent learning laboratory exercises.
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Reduce failure 1. To provide make-up 2. Improves end- preparation. Requires lengthy A method of self- arrivals, absentees, or proficiency. Increases expenses. To maintain 4. Provides for self 4. Requires previously learned skills instruction. To provide retraining on equipment and procedures which have become obsolete. To upgrade production. To accelerate capable students. To provide enough common background among students. To provide the review and practice of knowledge and skills.
To orient students to a 1. A method in which 2. To set the stage for a 2. Reduce 2. Poses evaluation the instructor assigns lecture demonstration or classroom time. Permits 3. Produce non- periodicals, project or 3. To provide for or individual standard results. To provide for the review of material covered in class or to give practice. To provide enrichment material. To reach highly 1.
Permits adaptive 1. A method of operations or operations 2. Stimulates 2. Demands time and instruction in which involving danger or active money.
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Stimulate thinking. Need for group some discussion. Change pace of discussion. Encourage participants to reflect what was learnt.
Discover new ideas, 1. Leads to a very 1. It takes time thoughts and responses animated and particularly if it is a very quickly. More reserved 2. May consume a lot participants feel of material e. Requires high level facilitation skills. Exploring and 1. Good 1. Participants might improving interviewing energizers. Promotes 2. May not work with examining complexities empathy of trainees who do not and potential conflicts of trainees for other know each other well.
To consolidate 3. Encourages different lessons in one creativity in setting. Styles of Teaching No two teachers are alike, and any teacher with classroom teaching experience will agree that their style of teaching is uniquely their own. An effective teaching style engages students in the learning process and helps them develop critical thinking skills.
The following list of teaching styles highlights the five main strategies teachers use in the classroom, as well as the benefits and potential pitfalls of each respective teaching method.
Authority, or lecture style The authority model is teacher-centered and frequently entails lengthy lecture sessions or one-way presentations. Students are expected to take notes or absorb information. The pure lecture style is most suitable for subjects like history that necessitate memorization of key facts, dates, names, etc. Demonstrator, or coach style The demonstrator retains the formal authority role while allowing teachers to demonstrate their expertise by showing students what they need to know.
Facilitator, or activity style Facilitators promote self-learning and help students develop critical thinking skills and retain knowledge that leads to self-actualization.
Delegator, or group style The delegator style is best-suited for curriculum that requires lab activities, such as chemistry and biology, or subjects that warrant peer feedback, like debate and creative writing. Here is a recap from the list of teaching methods described earlier. Theoretically, the more teachers emphasize student- centric learning the harder it is to develop a well-focused style based on their personal attributes, strengths and goals. Here are some other factors to consider as teachers determine the best teaching method for their students.
Critics of this traditional approach to teaching insist this teaching style is outmoded and needs to be updated for the diverse 21st- century classroom.
Active vs. Knowledge vs. A blend of teaching styles that incorporate facilitator, delegator, demonstrator, and lecturer techniques helps the broadest range of students acquire in-depth knowledge and mastery of a given subject.
This stands in contrast to passive learning, which typically entails memorizing facts, or information, with the short-term objective of scoring well on tests. The alternative is to wait for test results, only to discover knowledge gaps that should have been detected during the active learning phase. Constructivist teaching methods: Contemporary teaching styles tend to be group focused and inquiry driven. Constructivist teaching methods embrace subsets of alternative teaching styles, including modeling, coaching, and test preparation through rubrics scaffolding.
All of these are designed to promote student participation and necessitate a hybrid approach to teaching. However, differentiated instruction demands that teachers finesse their style to accommodate the diverse needs of 21st-century classrooms.
Lecture by teacher and what else can you do! Class discussion conducted by teacher and what else! Recitation oral questions by teacher answered orally by students then what!
Discussion groups conducted by selected student chairpersons yes, and what else! Lecture-demonstration by teacher and then what other techniques! Lecture-demonstration by another instructor s from a special field guest speaker 7. Presentation by a panel of instructors or students 8. Presentations by student panels from the class: class invited to participate 9. Student reports by individuals Student-group reports by committees from the class Debate informal on current issues by students from class Class discussions conducted by a student or student committee Forums Bulletin boards Small groups such as task oriented, discussion, Socratic Choral speaking Collecting Textbook assignments Reading assignments in journals, monographs, etc.
Reading assignments in supplementary books Assignment to outline portions of the textbook Assignment to outline certain supplementary readings Debates formal Crossword puzzles Cooking foods of places studied Construction of vocabulary lists Vocabulary drills Diaries Dances of places or periods studied Construction of summaries by students Dressing dolls Required term paper Panel discussion Biographical reports given by students Reports on published research studies and experiments by students Library research on topics or problems Written book reports by students Flags Jigsaw puzzle maps Hall of Fame by topic or era military or political leaders, heroes Flannel boards Use of pretest Gaming and simulation Flash cards Flowcharts Interviews Maps, transparencies, globes Mobiles Audio-tutorial lessons individualized instruction Models Music Field trips Drama, role playing Open textbook study Committee projects—small groups Notebook Murals and montages Class projects Individual projects Quiz down gaming Modelling in various media Pen pals Photographs Laboratory experiments performed by more than two students working together Use of dramatization, skits, plays Student construction of diagrams, charts, or graphs Making of posters by students Students drawing pictures or cartoons vividly portray principles or facts Problem solving or case studies Puppets Use of chalkboard by instructor as aid in teaching Use of diagrams, tables, graphs, and charts by instructor in teaching Use of exhibits and displays by instructor Reproductions Construction of exhibits and displays by students Use of slides Use of filmstrips Use of motion pictures, educational films, videotapes Use of theatre motion pictures Use of recordings Use of radio programs Use of television Role playing Sand tables School affiliations Verbal illustrations: use of anecdotes and parables to illustrate Service projects Stamps, coins, and other hobbies Use of community or local resources Story telling Surveys Tutorial: students assigned to other students for assistance, peer teaching Coaching: special assistance provided for students having difficulty in the course Oral reports Word association activity Workbooks Using case studies reported in literature to illustrate psychological principles and facts Construction of scrapbooks Applying simple statistical techniques to class data Time lines Units of instruction organized by topics Non directive techniques applied to the classroom Supervised study during class period Use of sociometric text to make sociometric analysis of class Use of technology and instructional resources Open textbook tests, take home tests Put idea into picture Write a caption for chart, picture, or cartoon Reading aloud Differentiated assignment and homework Telling about a trip Mock convention Filling out forms income tax, checks Prepare editorial for school paper Attend council meeting, school boar meeting Making announcements Taking part community elections Playing music from other countries or times Studying local history Compile list of older citizens as resource people Students from abroad exchange students Obtain free and low cost materials Collect old magazines Collect colored slides Specialize in one country Follow a world leader in the media Visit an employment agency Start a campaign Conduct a series Investigate a life Assist an immigrant Volunteer tutoring, hospital